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Will nuclear fusion help solve our future energy needs?
Blog...Will nuclear fusion help solve our future energy needs?

Will nuclear fusion help solve our future energy needs?

Green News
nuclear power station
In this article, we’ll explore nuclear fusion, its benefits and technological challenges, and its potential to address our future energy needs while combating climate change.
Green News
nuclear power station

As the world grapples with the growing issue of climate change, the search for sustainable and clean energy sources has become more urgent than ever. Fossil fuels – the backbone of global energy production – are significant contributors to climate change, releasing vast amounts of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere. And while renewable energy sources like solar and wind power have made significant advances, they’re not yet capable of providing consistent and reliable energy on a global scale. Some believe that nuclear fusion could offer a better solution for addressing our future energy needs as it promises an almost limitless supply of energy with minimal environmental impact. However, realising this potential means overcoming scientific and engineering challenges.

👉 In this article, we’ll explore nuclear fusion, its benefits and technological challenges, and its potential to address our future energy needs while combating climate change.

What is nuclear fusion?

In simple terms, nuclear fusion is the process of combining two light atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a substantial amount of energy. This process powers the sun and stars and has the potential to provide a nearly limitless, clean energy source. 

Fusion occurs in a state of matter called plasma, which is a hot, charged gas composed of positive ions and free-moving electrons. In the sun, nuclear fusion happens under extreme temperatures and pressures, created by its immense gravity. To achieve fusion on Earth, we need to replicate these conditions using advanced technology to heat the plasma to millions of degrees and maintain high pressure.

While nuclear fusion has been achieved in experimental settings, sustaining a controlled fusion reaction that produces more energy than it consumes remains a challenge. However, scientists are making exciting advances toward this goal, and if successful, nuclear fusion could revolutionise our energy landscape by providing a powerful, sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

How is nuclear fusion achieved? 

The principle behind nuclear fusion involves replicating the extreme conditions found in the core of stars, where immense pressure and high temperatures force atomic nuclei to overcome their natural repulsion and fuse. On Earth, achieving these conditions requires heating a plasma of hydrogen isotopes to temperatures over 100 million degrees Celsius. In this state, the nuclei can collide with enough energy to fuse, creating helium and releasing vast amounts of energy.

How does nuclear fusion differ from nuclear fission?

Nuclear fusion differs fundamentally from nuclear fission, which is the process used in current nuclear power plants. While fission splits heavy atomic nuclei to release energy, fusion merges light nuclei. Fusion typically uses isotopes of hydrogen, such as deuterium and tritium, to produce helium and energy. This method promises greater safety and minimal radioactive waste compared to fission

What are the benefits of nuclear fusion? 

Nuclear fusion offers a number of significant advantages:

  • High energy yield - Fusion reactions produce far more energy than traditional energy sources. One kilogram of fusion fuel can produce as much energy as 10 million kilograms of fossil fuels.
  • Clean energy - Fusion reactions produce no carbon emissions, making it an environmentally friendly energy source. The primary by-product of fusion is helium, a gas that is harmless to the environment.
  • Minimal radioactive waste - Unlike fission, fusion produces no long-lived radioactive waste. The primary by-product is helium, a gas that is harmless to the environment.
  • Safety - Fusion reactions are inherently safe. There is no risk of a catastrophic meltdown, as the reaction conditions are difficult to maintain, and any disturbance will naturally shut down the reaction within seconds.

Despite these advantages, achieving commercial-scale nuclear fusion remains a significant scientific and engineering challenge. Continued research, innovation, and international collaboration are essential to overcoming these challenges and realising the promise of nuclear fusion.

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What’s the current status of nuclear fusion research?

Nuclear fusion research has seen significant advancements over the past few decades, bringing us closer to achieving practical fusion energy. Scientists and engineers around the world are working on various experimental projects to develop a stable and efficient fusion reaction. 

Recent advancements include success in sustaining high-temperature plasma for extended periods and controlled fusion reactions. Though, perhaps the most significant breakthrough was the achievement of a ‘net energy gain’ in a laboratory setting - this is where the energy produced by the fusion reaction exceeds the energy input, although only for brief moments. These advancements have led to hope that fusion energy could become a practical reality in the near future.

Key projects in nuclear fusion research

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

ITER, located in France, is one of the largest and most ambitious nuclear fusion projects in the world. It aims to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy. Scheduled to produce its first plasma by 2025, ITER is a collaborative project involving 35 nations, including the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan, Russia, and South Korea. ITER's success would be a significant step toward making fusion energy commercially viable.

JET (Joint European Torus)

JET, based in the UK, is another prominent fusion research facility. It has been instrumental in advancing our understanding of fusion and testing plasma confinement techniques. JET holds the record for the highest energy output from a controlled fusion reaction, achieving 59 megajoules of energy in a five-second pulse. The insights gained from JET are crucial for the development of ITER and future fusion reactors.

Advancements in the US and UK

In the United States, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has achieved significant milestones, including the first demonstration of a net energy gain from a fusion reaction in 2022. The UK is also making strides with its STEP (Spherical Tokamak for Energy Production) program, which aims to design and build a compact fusion reactor by 2040.

💡 Nuclear fusion holds immense promise as a future energy source due to its potential for providing a nearly limitless and clean supply of energy. Fusion fuel, primarily derived from hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, can be distilled from water, making it widely available. Fusion produces no carbon emissions and generates minimal radioactive waste, with helium as the only by-product. Additionally, fusion reactions are considered to be safe, with no risk of catastrophic accidents, making it a highly attractive alternative to current energy sources.
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What are the challenges in achieving nuclear fusion?

Despite the progress, there are a number of significant challenges that stand in the way of nuclear fusion becoming feasible on a commercial scale: 

  • Extreme temperatures and pressures - Replicating the conditions found in the core of stars here on Earth requires temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius and immense pressures. Maintaining these conditions for a sustained period is a significant technical challenge.
  • Plasma confinement - Containing the hot plasma without it touching the reactor walls is essential for sustained fusion reactions. Techniques like Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are being developed to address this issue, but achieving stable confinement remains difficult.
  • Energy input vs. output - For fusion to be viable, the energy output must exceed the energy input. While experiments have achieved momentary net energy gains, sustaining this over longer periods remains a challenge.
  • Material durability - The materials used in fusion reactors must be able to withstand extreme heat, radiation, and neutron bombardment. Developing materials that can endure these harsh conditions without degrading is challenging.

How are scientists overcoming these challenges?

Despite the technical and scientific hurdles, researchers are exploring various approaches to overcome these challenges:

  • Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) - MCF uses powerful magnetic fields to contain and control the hot plasma. The most common device for MCF is the tokamak, a doughnut-shaped chamber that uses magnetic coils to create a stable magnetic field. Alternative designs, like stellarators, are also being explored to improve plasma stability and confinement.
  • Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) - ICF involves compressing and heating small pellets of fusion fuel using powerful lasers or particle beams. This method aims to achieve the necessary temperatures and pressures through rapid compression. Recent advancements in laser technology have improved the efficiency and precision of this approach.
  • Magnetised Target Fusion (MTF) - MTF combines aspects of both MCF and ICF by rapidly compressing a magnetised plasma using a magnetic field while simultaneously heating it. This is done by impacting the plasma with a dense plasma or a high-energy particle beam to reach the temperatures and densities needed for fusion. MTF is still under active research and development.
  • Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) - DPF devices generate plasma using a pulsed electrical current. The plasma is then compressed by electromagnetic forces produced by the current, leading to intense heating and compression that can trigger fusion reactions. DPF machines are compact and simpler to construct but face challenges in sustaining the necessary plasma conditions for continuous fusion.
  • Advanced materials - To address the durability challenge, researchers are developing advanced materials that can withstand the extreme conditions inside a fusion reactor. These materials need to be heat-resistant, radiation-resistant, and capable of handling the intense neutron flux. Innovations in material science are crucial in this area.
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning - AI and machine learning are being utilised to predict and control plasma behaviour. By analysing vast amounts of data from fusion experiments, AI can help optimise reactor performance and prevent instabilities. 

When can we expect nuclear fusion to become a viable energy source?

While significant progress has been made in the journey to make nuclear fusion energy a reality, the road remains long and there are many challenges ahead. While exact timelines are difficult to pin down, experts generally agree that we might see fusion power contributing to the energy grid within the next century. Optimistic projections suggest that demonstration reactors could be operational by the 2030s, with commercial fusion power plants potentially coming online by 2050.

Optimistic projections are fuelled by recent breakthroughs and advancements in fusion technology. Some private companies and research institutions believe that with continued innovation and investment, we could see the first fusion reactors producing net energy within the next 10 to 15 years.

However, experts remind us that the technical and engineering challenges that remain are significant. Achieving sustained, controlled fusion reactions that consistently produce more energy than they consume is a huge hurdle. Additionally, transitioning from experimental setups to scalable, economically viable fusion power plants requires overcoming substantial scientific, engineering, and financial challenges. Most experts believe that while pilot projects may emerge in the next two decades, widespread commercial deployment of fusion energy might not occur until the 2050s at the earliest.

The importance of investment and international cooperation

Sustained investment and international cooperation are critical to the success of nuclear fusion as a viable energy source. Fusion research is incredibly resource-intensive, requiring significant financial investment. Government funding, private-sector investment, and public-private partnerships are all essential to driving the research and development needed to make nuclear fusion a reality.

International cooperation also plays an important role in pooling resources, sharing knowledge, and accelerating progress. Projects like ITER, which involves the collaboration of 35 different countries, highlight the benefits of global cooperation. Scientific partnerships like this not only enhance scientific and technological advancements but also ensure that the benefits of fusion energy are shared worldwide.

In addition to financial and collaborative efforts, continuous innovation in materials science, physics, and engineering is essential. The development of advanced materials that can withstand extreme conditions, improved plasma confinement techniques, and efficient energy conversion systems are all areas that require ongoing research and development if nuclear fusion is to become a viable energy source.

👉 While nuclear fusion faces significant challenges, the potential rewards make it worth pursuing. Fusion energy promises a clean, nearly limitless source of power that could revolutionise the global energy landscape.

Nuclear power station during sunset

How can nuclear fusion contribute to the fight against climate change?

Nuclear fusion holds incredible potential in the fight against climate change by offering a viable energy alternative to fossil fuels. As a clean energy source, fusion produces no carbon emissions during operation, which is critical for reducing the greenhouse gases that drive global warming. Unlike coal, oil, and natural gas, which emit large quantities of greenhouse gases, fusion reactions produce only helium as a by-product. Transitioning to fusion energy would therefore drastically reduce the carbon footprint of energy production, aiding efforts to meet international climate targets and reduce global warming.

The ability of nuclear fusion to provide a virtually limitless supply of energy would allow us to significantly reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The deuterium and tritium used in fusion reactions are abundant and can easily be sourced from seawater, making fusion a sustainable energy solution. This abundance ensures a stable and long-term energy supply, unlike fossil fuels, which are finite and subject to geopolitical tensions and market fluctuations.

Nuclear fusion also has the potential to complement renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. While renewables are essential for a sustainable energy future, they are often intermittent and dependent on weather conditions. Fusion, on the other hand, can provide a stable and consistent energy output, ensuring a reliable base load of power. This combination can create a more resilient and robust energy grid, capable of meeting global energy demands sustainably.

The achievement of commercial-scale nuclear fusion and its integration into the energy mix would mark a significant milestone in the global effort to mitigate climate change. By reducing greenhouse gas emissions, decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and complementing renewable energy sources, fusion can play a pivotal role in creating a sustainable and clean energy future.

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What about Greenly?

At Greenly we can help you to assess your company’s carbon footprint, and then give you the tools you need to cut down on emissions. Why not request a free demo with one of our experts - no obligation or commitment required. 

If reading this article has inspired you to consider your company’s own carbon footprint, Greenly can help. Learn more about Greenly’s carbon management platform here.

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