Permaculture: Definition, Principles and Examples
What is permaculture, and how does it help the environment and the on-going fight against climate change?
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Electric cars and vehicles are designed to be an eco-friendly alternative to cars that run on fossil fuels. This has led global leaders and car makers to embrace electric vehicles as part of their carbon emissions reduction strategies.
General Motors, for example, has gone so far as to announce that it will only sell electric cars and light trucks by 2035, and completely transform its manufacturing to battery-powered designs. Volvo is another car manufacturer with plans to pivot to electric-only new car sales by 2030.
Yet, no industry comes without an environmental footprint.
Some people have raised legitimate concerns that mining rare earth minerals for electric car batteries could put biodiverse regions at risk. Others have noted that we don’t have a cost-effective means to recycle electric car batteries.
Does this mean that electric cars are worse than regular cars? Experts say no, but they do have some important environmental pitfalls to address.
Read on to learn their environmental impacts, ways to address them, and popular myths about electric cars.
Plugging in your transportation is a new concept to most people who are used to pumping gas to get from point A to point B. With a dashboard that looks like a giant smartphone, EVs can look like they’ve come from the future.
Just like your average automatic transmission car, an electric vehicle powers on with ignition, accelerates with the acceleration pedal, and stops with the brakes. The main difference between an EV and a fossil-fuel-powered car is the design of its motor.
Electric vehicles are powered by batteries which must be periodically re-charged using a charging station connected to an electricity power source. This is familiar to most people because it’s the same way we charge our phones, computers, and other electronic devices and appliances.
Most electric vehicles use a lithium-ion battery with a relatively simple design. In fact, there are only 20 moving parts in an EV motor versus almost 2,000 in the engine of a comparable internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle.
A fully electric car requires no petrol or diesel and no gears to change to higher or lower speeds. Instead, pressing the accelerator powers the motor from an electric battery. The motor turns the wheels from the drive shafts.
When you press the brakes, the energy generated in the motor can deliver power back to the battery, helping it retain an electric charge longer.
There are a few key differences between electric cars and gasoline-fuelled vehicles:
There are four main types of cars that use some form of electric power. Some include both electric and fuel-power within the same vehicle.
Fully electric vehicle (EV):
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV):
Self-charging hybrid (HEV):
Mild Hybrid (MHEV):
Hybrid vehicles are an attractive option for people who want to lower their petrol costs and environmental footprint in areas without a lot of charging stations.
Hybrid cars use both petroleum and electric motors. Some will use the electric motor at lower speeds and switch to the gasoline-fueled motor at high speeds. Others merely use the electric motor as a support to the main engine.
Depending on the level of power the electric motor supplies, hybrids are classified as strong or mild.
The key point is they emit less CO2 and they require less fuel so they can save their owners money.
We know that electric cars don’t emit CO2 emissions from their exhaust, because no fuel is burned. That said, they still require electricity. For now, a significant amount of electricity (about 60%) still comes from fossil fuel sources in the US.
Therefore, to get the full picture, you’d have to compare how fossil fuels are burned while charging your electric vehicle versus the amount burned to drive an ICE car.
This varies from country to country as well as by region. Driving an electric car in Iceland, for instance, would emit almost no emissions from its operation or charging, because the energy sources there are predominantly renewable: wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro.
In the US the situation varies by state. The state of Maine sourced 72% of its electricity from non-fossil fuel sources in 2021, while Texas relied on wind, solar, and nuclear for only 40% of its electricity. On the other hand, Texas is installing more solar power than any other state, so the mix will likely improve over time.
These factors make it necessary to consider future projections when comparing the environmental footprint of electric vehicles.
So what’s the final verdict? According to the European Energy Agency, even when you account for GHG emissions from electricity generation for charging, electric cars still have a smaller carbon footprint than gasoline cars. The emissions of EVs tend to be between 17 and 30% lower than driving a petrol or diesel car.
Another critical factor in electric car sustainability is their manufacturing practices. As with all vehicles, producing new electric vehicles requires raw materials. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (a non-profit science advocacy organization), the manufacturing of electric cars emits more carbon emissions.
Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles which use common metals and materials in their engines, most electric vehicles use rare earth elements (REE) such as lithium, nickel, cobalt, and graphite. Mining these elements requires carbon-intensive practices.
Another concern is that mining these REE materials comes with environmental trade-offs. About 60% of the reserves of cobalt are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where rainforests with rich biodiversity grow. Mining in these areas could threaten biodiversity.
To read more about the harmful effects of the creation of lithium batteries head over to our article on the topic.
Beyond mining, half of the environmental impact of electric vehicles comes from producing their batteries. However, the environmental impact of the automobile manufacturing process could improve as we shift towards renewable energy sources in the future.
Given that all raw materials extraction presents difficult trade-offs, it’s also important to consider the alternative: many remaining oil reserves also exist in protected areas.
For a direct comparison, however, the environmental impact of EVs improves over the lifetime of the vehicle compared to a conventional car. On average, the break-even point is reached after the EV has been driven between 17,500 and 21,300 miles (this means the break-even point arrives after approximately 1.5 to 2 years of driving). And considering that most vehicles are driven 200,000 miles in their lifetime, EVs end up being considerably better for the environment over their total lifespan.
Consumer reports suggest EV batteries could last for around 17 years or 200,000 miles. The average lifespan of a conventional car is 12 years. This practice of measuring and comparing lifetime emissions is an important environmental comparison strategy called Life Cycle Analysis.
To learn more about Life Cycle Analysis and how Greenly can help your company to carry out an assessment of your products or services, head over to our article.
In sum, about 10-15 years of an EV’s lifespan would operate with a better carbon footprint than conventional cars with clean energy charging, assuming no change to manufacturing or battery technology.
However, the end-of-life of batteries presents another ecological challenge.
Yet, recycling lithium-ion batteries is a much less developed area. Lithium is found in such low traces within the batteries, that it is hard to recover. Globally, only 5% of lithium in batteries is estimated to be recovered.
As the market for EVs grows, more companies have shown interest in solving the riddle of recycling batteries. Innovative companies are exploring solutions like mining them for their REE ingredients or repurposing them for renewable energy storage.
Recycling and reuse of outmoded EV car batteries is a promising field that would offset the environmental impacts of manufacturing the batteries, by extending their useful lifespan.
Myth: GHG emissions from electric power generation make electric cars less environmentally friendly than conventional cars.
Fact: It depends on the energy mix of your region. Compare the different estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different car types, in the US you can use the “Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Calculator” available on the US EPA website. In the UK, similar information can be found through the UK Government’s Vehicle Certification Agency website.
Myth: Electric vehicles run out of charge too quickly to manage daily commutes and travel needs.
Fact: The average driver in the US will travel around 37 miles per day. In the UK this number is lower at 20 miles per day. A fully charged EV can travel roughly 200 miles while charging at the station can deliver 100 miles of travel range. Therefore, for the average driver, electric vehicles should hold more than enough charge to cover daily commutes and travel needs.
To understand an EV’s range expectations, you’ll need to check the specific car model specifications.
Another factor impacting EV range is driver behavior and weather conditions. Cold temperatures can reduce driving range by up to 40%.
Myth: Electric car models are very limited.
Fact: A greater variety of electric cars is available. Manufacturers are developing them in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and hybrid vehicle options. Over 450 electric car models are available worldwide including Tesla’s Cybertruck, which offers pick-up utility.
Myth: There aren’t enough charging stations available.
Fact: The US currently has over 160,000 stations available and the UK has more than 45,000, with more being installed daily. However, a little-known fact is they can even plug into standard 120 V (Level 1) outlets. The technology for charging is no different from charging your iPhone.
However, most EV owners prefer 240 V charging systems, which can charge vehicles more quickly. Finally, a new generation of high-powered DC fast charging stations is also being built.
The charging rates for each are as follows:
Myth: Battery making makes EVs worse for climate change than gasoline-powered vehicles
Fact: For new vehicles, this is true. However, the lifespan of an average vehicle is over ten years. Lifetime emissions for EVs are much lower.
While the precise comparison depends on the car model and useful lifespan for each car type, charging emissions, and more. In general, a 300-mile car range EV has roughly a third fewer emissions over its lifespan than a conventional car on average–even with today’s electricity power mix.
Myth: Electric cars are dangerous to drive.
Fact: All manufacturers are required to meet high safety standards. The standards between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles are no different in the US.
EV batteries also undergo intense testing to meet safety standards for avoiding short circuits from water or other factors. Car batteries are designed to detect risks and automatically shut down to avoid collisions and short-circuits
At Greenly, we can help you to assess your company’s carbon footprint, and then give you the tools you need to cut down on emissions. Why not request a free demo with one of our experts - no obligation or commitment required.
If reading this article has inspired you to consider your company’s own carbon footprint, Greenly can help. Learn more about Greenly’s carbon management platform here.
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